The success of IVF treatment might be influenced by health and lifestyle factors affecting one or both parents.
Many women naturally believe that their uterus is faulty or that their body is incapable of accepting the embryo that their uterus is rejecting or destroying the transferred embryo. After all, fertilization took place in a lab, the embryo developed normally in vitro, and they even got to see their embryo. An embryo is created when an egg and sperm come together. In the blastocyst stage, the embryo divides quickly and enters the uterus or is transferred to the uterus on day 3 or day 5 during an IVF cycle. This results in the implantation of the embryo being competent and the endometrium is receptive. The attachment of a blastocyst-stage embryo to the endometrial lining of the uterus so that it can develop into a baby is known as implantation. As a result, individuals naturally conclude that healthy embryos are designed to implant and that if they don’t, there’s something wrong with their uterus or body.
Below are some of the causes for implantation failure during IVF treatment:
The egg’s or sperm’s quality
For a healthy embryo, high-quality egg and sperm are necessary elements. Given that healthy embryos have the best chance of implanting in the womb, it’s critical to use the highest-quality eggs and sperm during IVF. Unfortunately, a variety of circumstances can impair the quality of eggs and sperm.
Recurrent implantation failure can also be caused by sperm abnormalities. Damage to the genetic material of sperm also known as DNA fragmentation might, for example, impair the development of an embryo and, as a result, the likelihood of implantation.
Chronological age of a woman
The age of a woman has a strong impact on overall health and fertility, and they are most fertile in their teens and 20s. Their fertility starts declining in their 30s and 40s. The age of an egg has a significant impact on its quality and quantity. When a woman reaches the age of 35, her egg quality begins to deteriorate. This indicates that eggs taken from older women have a lower chance of successfully implanting in the uterine wall.
Embryo chromosomal abnormalities
Recurrent implantation failure is often caused by chromosomal variations inside the embryo. Chromosomes are special DNA-containing structures found within cells. Each egg and sperm include 23 DNA-storing chromosomes, which are all passed on from each parent during fertilization giving the embryo a total of 46 chromosomes.
However, chromosomal mistakes can occur during the embryogenesis process. Aneuploidy is a term for anomalies in the number of chromosomes present, as well as structural modifications that impact the size of chromosomes or how the DNA is organized within them.
An increase in the amount of genetic material contained in the embryo is also possible. Chromosomal abnormalities in the embryo, regardless of the type of defect, are far less likely to result in continuing pregnancy.
The most important determinant in chromosomal abnormalities in the embryo is the female’s age. However, a structural rearrangement in a person’s chromosomes can be present at birth, predisposing them to produce primarily defective eggs or sperm. A karyotype test on the persons who provide the egg and sperm can be used to discover this.
The uterus’s surrounding
The endometrium must undergo biochemical changes for an embryo to effectively implant in the uterus. The endometrium thickens and becomes sensitive to prospective embryo implantation in preparation for a healthy embryo.
Fibroids, polyps, adenomyosis, hydrosalpinxes, and endometriosis are just a few of the disorders that can induce inflammation and scarring in the uterine environment. The presence of these diseases might sometimes make it more difficult for the embryo to implant in the uterine wall.
Medical conditions and lifestyle influences
The success of embryo transfer might be influenced by health and lifestyle factors affecting one or both parents. Underlying medical issues in the mother, including diabetes, thyroid disease, and other endocrine diseases, as well as autoimmune disorders and clotting disorders such as thrombophilia, can prevent the embryo from interacting with the endometrium.
Furthermore, both parents’ alcohol intake, smoking, and other modifiable lifestyle variables such as poor diet, exercise, and being overweight may lead to repeated implantation failure.
Implantation failure is a complicated disease with many different causes and mechanisms, as well as therapeutic possibilities. Depending on the condition there are a variety of therapy options. Contact your fertility specialist about your specific requirements.
The article is contributed by Dr Rohit Gutgutia, Medical Director, Nova IVF Fertility, Eastern India.