In recent years, the incidence of polycystic ovarian syndrome has increased. Obstetrics and IVF Specialist Op. Dr. Öznur Dündar Akın is telling for you.
Polycystic ovary, which develops in the form of many small and benign cysts in the ovary, is a disease that manifests itself with irregular menstruation. In addition to this symptom; It can also lead to the formation of many problems such as weight gain and hair loss, hair growth and acne. Due to the formation of cysts in the ovaries that disrupt the ovulation pattern, women with this disease often have infertility problems. This disease, which negatively affects the quality of life, can cause psychological problems.
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a serious disease. If left untreated for a long time, it causes fatty liver, diabetes, high blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, infertility, depression and anxiety, high blood pressure, sleep apnea and many more important problems. In order to lose weight and control hormone levels, people with this disease should start treatment as soon as possible.
Although the disease does not show any symptoms in the first stage, it will begin to show some symptoms as the process progresses. The most common symptom of polycystic ovary syndrome is irregular menstrual bleeding. This disease occurs especially in young girls between the ages of 13 and 19. Although it differs from person to person, the common symptoms of most women can be listed as follows:
- Menstrual irregularity,
- Weight gain – difficulty losing weight,
- More body hair,
- Bleeding between 2 periods
- Acne problems,
- Tenderness in the chest area (growth, shrinkage),
- Hair loss,
- Blemish formation on the skin.
It is known that genetic and environmental factors are effective in the emergence of polycystic ovary syndrome. People with a family history of polycystic ovary are more likely to develop this disease than others. In addition, obesity is one of the factors that lead to the formation of this disease. Being overweight and the resulting insulin resistance can lead to hyperinsulinemia, which increases androgen synthesis in the body.
Diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome; It is established by detailed examination of clinical findings, radiographic images and patient history. For patients with one or more problems such as early or late menstruation, amenorrhea, excessive hair loss, detailed ovarian and uterus examination is performed with the help of pelvic or vaginal ultrasound. As a result of blood tests performed on the third day of menstruation, hormone levels can be measured and diseases can be diagnosed based on all these diagnostic tests.
Polycystic ovary treatment requires separate planning by endocrinologists and obstetricians. In the treatment process, besides fighting the disease, different treatment methods are used to eliminate the secondary problems caused by the disease. First, anti-androgen drugs can be used to reduce the level of male (androgen) hormones that are higher than normal in the blood. One of the most important treatment principles in order to improve the course of the disease is to reduce insulin resistance with a personalized polycystic ovary syndrome diet prepared by a nutritionist in order to help the patient get down to the ideal weight.
As in many diseases, early diagnosis of the disease, development of a treatment plan according to the stage of the disease and preventive measures to prevent the progression of the disease are very important in order to prevent the problems caused by the disease.
Whether polycystic ovary syndrome will affect fertility is the most confusing questions for patients. It should not be forgotten that with the right treatment process, this disease can be completely controlled, especially in people who want a child, so infertility can be prevented.
Polycystic ovary syndrome reduces the chances of pregnancy as it inhibits or makes ovulation irregular. Compared to women without this syndrome, women with polycystic ovary syndrome are less likely to become pregnant. Most of these patients are able to get pregnant with the assisted in vitro fertilization method. Approximately 15-20 percent of patients undergoing IVF treatment consist of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
In vitro fertilization is a method that enables the development of a large number of eggs, therefore it allows more than one attempt. In this treatment, relatively low doses of drugs can be used to stimulate the eggs and collect the resulting eggs. The first few months are extremely important for IVF pregnancies in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, because the risk of miscarriage is slightly higher than other patient groups, especially due to hormonal imbalances.